Gender inequality and productivity
This map from the World Development Report provides a more fine-grained overview of different property regimes operating in different countries. More women in industries in which they have traditionally been under-represented — such as computing — will bring their unique set of perspectives and strengths to bear on these collective endeavors.
In other words: Most of the convergence in earnings occurred during the s, a decade in which the "unexplained" gap shrunk substantially.
However, these observed differences are far from being biologically fixed — 'gendering' begins early in life and the evidence shows that preferences and skills are highly malleable.
But they failed to address other structural drivers of wage inequality, such as gender-based occupational segregation.
Research on gender inequality
This allows us to tease out the extent to which different factors contribute to observed inequalities. Thus despite making inroads into top income groups in recent years, overall we see continued evidence of a 'glass ceiling' for women. In the map below we provide an overview of the countries that do, and do not have gender-equal inheritance systems. Click to open interactive version The Gender Inequality Index from the Human Development Report The Human Development Report produced by the UN includes a composite index that captures gender inequalities across several dimensions, including economic status. Throughout the s, the free market gained increasing influence on public policy. How does the same comparison look like for other countries? With gender bias entrenched — especially at an unconscious level — how can societies and companies make this transition? The chart below shows the percentage of men and women who report borrowing any money in the past 12 months to start, operate, or expand a farm or business. Lower pay inequality lifts productivity by making it easier for companies to attract and retain talent. Blau and Kahn further break down the wage gap into contributing factors. Control over household resources Women often have no control over their personal earned income The chart below plots cross-country estimates of the share of women who are not involved in decisions about their own income. The chart below shows how quickly female wages increased in pharmacy, relative to other professions, over the last few decades in the US. Third, we can see that education and experience used to help explain a very large part of the pay gap in , but this changed substantially in the decades that followed. For example, suppose that women are indeed discriminated against, and they find it hard to get hired for certain jobs simply because of their sex. However, these observed differences are far from being biologically fixed — 'gendering' begins early in life and the evidence shows that preferences and skills are highly malleable.
Second, if we focus on groups of workers with roughly similar jobs, tenure and education, we also see a narrowing. We explain the decline in annual earnings by women working less when children are young and getting paid less when children are older.
One argument usually put forward is that, to the extent that biological differences in preferences and abilities underpin gender roles, they are the main factors explaining the gender pay gap. The most important evidence regarding this link between the gender pay gap and job flexibility is presented and discussed by Claudia Goldin in the article ' A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter ', where she digs deep in the data from the US.
Goldin18 for instance, examines past prohibitions against the training and employment of married women in the US. These estimates rely on the same empirical approach, specification and sample selection, so results are comparable.
To be clear, yes, there is evidence supporting the fact that men and women differ in some key attributes that may affect labor market outcomes. For me, personally, Dubai has been an inspirational city, in truly empowering women and creating an inclusive and gender-diverse culture.
For each of these areas, there are economic or societal gains from increased gender parity.
based on 28 review